Research Methods In Psychology
The study of psychology tends to be diverse, and draws out knowledge from other fields so as to completely understand the psychological phenomena. Psychologists may carry out basic research to further understand a particular area of interest in psychology, or may even conduct applied research to solve problems in the clinic, workplace or other areas. The prime focus of this page is to look at the different research methods in psychology.
Professional associations for psychologists have well-known guiding principles for ethics, training, research methodology and professional practice. The three modes of inference- deduction, induction, and abduction are extensively used by psychologists for hypothesis generation. Psychologists offering services to the public usually need to be licensed and depending on the country, state or region, the psychological services and the title "psychologist" may be ruled by statute. Here are some common psychology research methods:
Qualitative and quantitative research
Psychological researchers search for the surfacing of theoretically interesting categories and hypotheses from data, using qualitative or quantitative methods or both. Qualitative psychological research methods include first-hand observation, interviews, and participant observation. Quantitative psychological research is based on the statistical testing of hypotheses and includes the experiment, quasi-experiment, cross-sectional study, case-control study, and longitudinal study.
Experimental psychological research method is carried out in a laboratory under controlled conditions. These research methods in psychology of research rely on the application of the scientific method to understand behavior. Using several types of measurements, like rate of response, reaction time, and various psychometric measurements, experimenters try to infer causal relationships between various aspects of behavior and the environment.
Another of the methods of research in psychology, statistical surveys are used in psychology to measure attitudes and traits, monitoring changes in mood. Psychologists commonly use paper-and-pencil surveys to check the validity of experimental manipulations, and for a wide variety of other psychological topics.
Longitudinal studies as psychology research methods are often used to study developmental tendencies across the life span. Tracking the same people, the aim is to study life events throughout lifetimes or generations.
Study in natural settings
Psychologists conduct observational studies in human social, professional and family lives. Under these research methods in psychology, the participants may or may not be aware that they are being studied.
Qualitative and descriptive research
Descriptive research is designed to find answer to questions about the present state of affairs such as the thoughts, feelings and behaviors of individuals. These methods of research in psychology can be qualitative or quantitative in direction.
Neuropsychology involves observing and studying both healthy individuals and patients, generally those who have endured either brain injury or mental illness. The differences in patterns of remaining ability are studied closely under these psychological research methods.
Computational modeling is used in mathematical psychology and cognitive psychology to simulate a specific behavior using a computer. These research methods in psychology have many advantages, as modern computers process the information very quickly and in a short time.
The biological basis of teaching, memory and behavior are investigated by animal learning experiments. Animals like cats, dogs, rats and other rodents are generally used in psychological experiments.